AMCAP Journal of Media and Communication Studies - Lahore

Journal of Media and Communication Studies

Association of Media and Communication Academic Professionals (AMCAP)
ISSN (online): 2789-9756

Spread of Religious Hatred through Digital Media in Pakistan: The Case of Tehreek-E-Labbaik Pakistan

  • Jazib Rehman Khan/
  • February 10, 2021
Keywords
Tehreek-e-Labbaik Pakistan (TLP), Religious Hatred, Social Media, Sectarianism, Blasphemy, Finality of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
Abstract

The rise of digitalisation that led to the rapid increase in the usage of social media platforms has unfortunately strengthened religious extremism in an already polarised society of Pakistan. This study aims to determine the extent to which a farright religio-political party Tehreek-e-Labbaik Pakistan (TLP) has propagated religious hatred content against both Muslim and non-Muslim communities on social media. Moreover, this study also explores the manner through which TLP has spread content based on religious bigotry on digital space. Framing theory was applied while analysing the speeches of TLP leaders’. The research methodology employed to test the hypothesis and address the research questions was quantitative questionnaire-based survey. The collected data was presented using the tools of graphical representation to make it easy for the readers to easily interpret the factual information. The findings of the online questionnaire and analysis of TLP leaders’ speeches addressed the three research questions of the study.The results show that TLP has used digital media as a tool to spread religious hatred on cyber space, since it has promoted sectarianism against Muslim communities and exploited sensitive religious issues – blasphemy and finality of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) – against non-Muslim communities through their speeches there were later uploaded on digital media. The researcher has recommended the government authorities to initiate legal action against the leaders of TLP for instigating religious hatred under Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act, 2016.

References

Allama Khadim Hussain Rizvi Official. (2017, June 20). Talking about Hindu for Islam [Video] .Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJV_EcTUFFE

Allama Khadim Hussain Rizvi Official. (2020, May 1). Allama Khadim Hussain Rizvi 2020 Aqliyat Commission Ke Naam Par Qadiyani Nawaaz. [Video].Youtube.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DmyBgY7EnsE

Allama Khadim Hussain Rizvi Official.(2020, July 3).Message for Temple Builders Temple inIslamabad[Video].Youtube.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgEmHb2dXZ8&list=PLnSUEBDqUJwJSfyttW83Z3iRnjmX25H6g

Barvi Media 92 & Movies Production. (2017, March 5). Allama Hafiz Khadim Husain Rizvi new bayan 2017-Deobandi mazhab ki haqeeqat  [Video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DsWy0ubJAh0

Basit, A. (2020). Barelvi Political Activism and Religious Mobilization in Pakistan: The Case of Tehreek-e-Labaik Pakistan (TLP). Politics, Religion & Ideology21(3), 374-389.

 doi https://doi.org/10.1080/21567689.2020.1812395

Dajjal - The Anti Christ. (2018, October 31). Pir Afzal Qadri, Khadim Rizvi talking about Army, Judiciary and Imran Khan.[Video].Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OcIp_yLYpS8

Farooq, U. (2018). TLP, Social media and hate speech in Pakistan. Centre for Research & Security Studies.(n.d).https://crssblog.com/tlp-social-media-and-hate-speech-in-pakistan/

Hafiz Hamza. (2016, May 20). Khadim Rizvi Abusing on Dr Tahir Ul Qadri in Mosque. [Video].Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DwJIzHp43Mk

Hussain, Z. (2017,October 18). The politics of hateDawn. Retrieved from https://www.dawn.com/news/1364532

Haider, I. (2018). The rise of the new cleric in Pakistan. TRT World. Retrieved from https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/the-rise-of-the-new-cleric-in-pakistan-19733

Islamic Videos. (2017, March 27). Peer Afzal Qadri Badly Bashing Abdul Sattar Edhi & General Raheel Sharif. [Video].Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KIfqMXrPr_Y

In Khabar. (2019, December 3). Khadim Hussain Rizvi abused Sikh, Maharaja Ranjeet Singh [Video].Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kCd97kflh40

Karen,S. (2005). News narratives and news framing: Constructing political reality. (n.d) Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Khan, A. (2020, August 19). Her American father was shot in a blasphemy trial in Pakistan. Now she’s fighting for justice. Religious News Service (RNS).[Blog Post]. Retrieved from https://religionnews.com/2020/08/19/her-father-was-shot-in-a-blasphemy-trial-in-pakistan-now-shes-fighting-for-justice/

Latest News. (2017, November 26). Khadim Hussain Rizvi Abuse Tariq Jameel [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yU5iol6zHTw

Masood, S. (2016). Pakistan Braces for Violence After Execution of Governor’s Killer. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/01/world/asia/salmaan-taseer-killer-mumtaz-qadri-executed.html

Nouman Yousaf. (n.d.). Raheel Shareef per laanat - Khadim Hussain Rizwi cursing [Video]. Youtube.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WO3ZY31nswQ

   Tehreek-e-Labaik using Facebook to incite hatred; social media ‘inaccessible’ in Pakistan. (2017). Pakistan Today. Retrieved from https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/11/25/tehreek-e-labaik-using-facebook-to-incite-hatred-social-media-inaccessible-in-pakistan/

FIA arrests two Labbaik activists for propaganda against LHC on social media. (2019). Pakistan Today Retrieved from https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2019/05/16/fia-arrests-two-labbaik-activists-for-propaganda-against-lhc-on-social-media/

Rizvi Media. (2017, October 9). Mirza Ghualm Qadyani Ki Oqat?? .. Allama Khadim Husain Rizvi 2017.[Video file].Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUIgOnmRZcI

Rizvi Media. (2018, May 10). Allama Khadim Hussain Rizvi. Moodi Or Hindu Ka Ilaj [Video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JQ8rn73GE70

Saeed, N. (2020, March 18 ). The frightening truth of religious intolerance against minorities. Daily Times. Retrieved from https://dailytimes.com.pk/578327/the-frightening-truth-of-religious-intolerance-against-minorities/

TLP Media Rawalpindi. (2020, January 24). Allama Khadim Hussain Rizvi new byan about Deobandi kharji [Video].Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7kScEyxCI_w

Understanding Sikhi. (2020, April 4). Khadim Hussain Rizvi ISLAMIC HATE PREACHER against Hindu's and Sikh's [Video].Youtube.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUdkFKLw2yg&has_verified=1

Wasim, S. (2020, August 29). Understanding the Two-Nation Theory. The Nation. Retrieved from https://nation.com.pk/29-Aug-2020/understanding-the-two-nation-theory

Zahid, F. (2018). The Potential for a New Strand of Islamist Extremism in Pakistan. The Jamestown Foundation,16(4),1-9. Retrieved from https://jamestown.org/program/potential-new-strand-islamist-extremism-pakistan/

Statistics

Author(s):

Student of M.Sc. Development Journalism at Institute of Communication Studies, University of the Punjab

Pakistan

  • jazibrehman.jr@gmail.com

Details:

Type: Article
Volume: 1
Issue: 1
Language: English
Id: 60218d6599264
Pages 42 - 65
Published February 10, 2021

Statistics

  • 172
  • 78
  • 69
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.